1.-  Introduction and addition 

     2.-  Concession

     3.-  Cause

     4.- Comparison

     5.-  Condition

     6.- Contrast

     7.-  Example

     8.-  Purpose

     9.-  Result

     10.- Summary

     11.- Time sequence








1.- Introduction and addition


Used when you want to introduce an idea or add something to a previous argument.

Besides, in addition to F a més

  I don't think I'll come on Friday. I have a lot to do. Besides I don't really like parties
  In addition to all those reasons, I would like to say that I don't really trust in people who only think of money.


At least F al menys, com a mínim

 At least ten people died in road accidents last weekend


  Above all sobre tot
  After all després de tot
  Anyway, in any case de tota manera, en qualsevol cas
  Apart from that a part d'això
  At first sight a primera vista, a primer cop d'ull
  Basically bàsicament
  Especially especialment
  Essentially, in particular essencialment, en particular
  Finally, lastly finalment, en darrer lloc
  Generally, in general,on the whole en general
  In conclusion en conclusió
  In the first place, firstly, first of all en primer lloc, primer de tot
  In this case en aquest cas
  Last but not least per últim, peró no per aixó menys important
  More or less, aproximately més o menys, aproximadament
  Obviously evidentment
  Secondly, in the second place en segon lloc
  To begin with, to start with per començar
  To sum up per resumir








2.- Concession


Used when you want to admit (concede) something that goes against another point.


Of course, certainly

 While I do not believe in God myself, I will, of course, admit the importance of religions
 Certainly, the early learning years are crucial to a child's educational development.










3.- Cause


When we want to to tell the reason why something happens


Because, as, since, for

  I am happy because the sun is shining
  As it was a public holiday,   all the shops were shut
  Since you asked, I am going to tell the truth
  I believed her, for she would not lie to me.











4.- Comparison

Used to point out a similarity with another idea.


Similarly, in a similar way

 Paris has some great museums of art. Similarly London has some wonderful museums



 Speaking a language fluently is not as easy as people think it is


As well as

 As well as being over seven feet tall, Manute Bol is an enthusiastic basketball player



 Getting money from him is like getting blood from a stone



 I prefer to say too little than to say too much
 I think it is more interesting to read a novel than to watch a film













5.- Condition


 I didn't mind if you wouldn't want to discuss this topic with me


Even if F fins i tot si, encara que

 Even if you are born rich, life is still difficult

As long as, provided (that) F if

 Children are allowed to use the pool as long as they are with an adult

 They’ll buy everything you produce, provided the price is right.



Unless F if not

 You can't come with me unless you promise to be quiet
 He hasn’t got any hobbies —unless you call watching TV a hobby.


Wether F if
generally used when you can choose among two options

 I don't know wether you have met him or not


In case F per si de cas , en cas de que

 Take an umbrella in case it rains













6.- Contrast


Used to point out a difference from the preceding thought


Although/though F encara que, tot i que, malgrat


  Although the sun was shining it wasn't very warm.
  We lost the game, though everyone played well


In spite of/despite + noun, pronoun, gerund F malgrat

despite without "of"

 She didn't get the job in spite of her qualifications
 I can't agree with you despite all your efforts.


While F mentre

 While Peter is good at Science, his brother is absolutely hopeless


On the one hand.... on the other hand F Per una banda.... per una altra

 On the one hand they'd love to have kids, but on the other they don't want to lose their freedom

In contrast to F en contrast, a diferencia de

 In contrast to all these arguments, most of scientists don't agree with State regulations.


 We thought the problems were correct. However, we have now discovered somer errors












7.- Example or illustration


Used when the information that follows is a detail or example that supports the previous idea.

For instance/for example

 What would you do, for instance , if you were the Prime Minister of your country?


In fact de fet, actually, really, As a matter of fact, The fact is F de fet, realment

The truth is that F la veritat és que...

The truth is that you can find very few people who are against the family as institution

TheoreticallyF en teoria

Theoretically light would infinitely bounce in a room made of perfect mirrors.

In practice F a la pràctica

Prisoners have legal rights but in practice these rights are not always respected

Obviously, of course F evidentment, per descomptat

Obviously cloning could be of great benefit to seriously ill people


Not only.., but also... F no solament.... sinó també


The countryside varies greatly, not only from place to place but from season to season.


As far, in relation to. As far as........... is concernedF en relació a , pel que fa a

 As far as I am concerned , I would like to say...

I mean F vull dir, em refereixo que


I mean technology is definitely a good part of our lives

In other words, that is (to say) F és a dir

In other words jogging is becoming a extremely popular way to exercise for all kind of people













8.- Purpose

To + infinitive
when the subject of the two verbs is the same
F per

  She arrived early to get a good seat
  They went into the forest to pick mushrooms

So that , in order that + will/would or can/could or may/might + verb

F per que, per tal que

  She took my shoes so that I couldn't leave the house
  These men risk their lives in order that we may live safely











9.- Result

Used to point out a cause and effect relationship with the previous thought.

So, therefore F per tant

  I wasn't feeling well so I went to see the doctor
  There is still much to discuss. Therefore we will come back to this topic next week


As result

 Some of my relatives died as a result of the war

So + noun/adjective/adverb + that + clause

  Humans will have so many artificial parts that we won't be able to distinguish them from cyborgs
  The song was so beautiful that we had to buy the record


Thus F així, per aquesta raó

  Americans always want to fight for oil, and thus they sent soldiers to the Persian Gulf to fight Iraq


  Consequently conseqüentment, en conseqüència
  Anyway, in any case de tota manera, en qualsevol cas
  For this reason per aquesta raó
  That's why és per això que
  Thus així











10.- Summary

Used to conclude or condense a thought.

In conclusion/to conclude


In conclusion, I would like to say that I am in favour of death penalty in some cases, such as...

  All in all en resum, en conclusió
  Finally finalment, en darrer lloc
  In brief, in short, in simpler terms,simply put en poques paraules/en resum, en paraules més senzilles
  In conclusion en conclusió
  in particular en particular
  in summary, to summarize en resum. per resumir
  on the whole en conjunt
  In other words, to put it differently en unes altres paraules, per dir-ho diferent












11.- Time sequence

Used to describe when an action happens in relation to another.



 The thief was seen as she was climbing over the wall.


By the time

 By the time I get home, she will be sleeping


 He talked only of love. Meanwhile, she was only thinking of sex.



 I was working on the computer, when she came in.



You may watch a film while I go shopping