we shouldn't make ...



     1.-  Adjectives, adverbs and other particles 

     2.-  Article

     3.-  Prepositions

     4.-  Verbs

     5.-  Misused words and false friends

     6.- Clauses











1.- Adjectives, pronouns, adverbs and other particles

1. Actually vs. nowadays

  Actually: really F realment, de fet
  Nowadays: present time, these days, currently, at the moment



2. Another/other
another is always a singular adjective

       other as an adjective never ends by "s"

    I'ts another wonderful day in your life
    You'll live other wonderful days in your life
    Some designs are bettter than others



3. as/like

  •  as I've already said...
     he works as a waiter
     he was respected both as a professional and as a person

  •  she acts like a fool
     it costs something like fifty cents
     I drink like a fish



4. Frequency adverb position: before, a lexical verb and usually after, a modal verb

    I usually watch tv serials
    You can't always get what you want



5. Never write two negative words in the same sentence.

    He didn't say anything     F No va dir res
    He said nothing               F No va dir res


6. Once, twice, three times, four times…

    I practise aerobic once a week, but I go to the gym five times a week.
    Don't think twice, its all right..



7. Overcoat: a warm coat worn over indoor clothing. F abric

Not to mistake for mainly (Specially, Most of times.) F principalment

    I had the gun in my overcoat pocket

    We are mainly interested in art



8. Position of the adverbs: Adverbs of manner: kindly, badly, well...
They answer the question "how". They are usually placed after the direct object if there is one, otherwise after the verb

   They walk quickly
   You speak English fluently
   He plays very well



9. To be afraid of or frightened, scared, terrified of

You shouldn't be afraid of dark








2.- Article

1. The definite article the is not used when we are talking about things or people in general

    Women today think that men can do the housework
    Lions live in the jungle
    Teenagers are young people between 13 and 19
    Life has changed a lot in the last thirty years



2. The undefinite article a or an is always singular

   A palm tree  F una palmera
   Palm trees   F unes palmeres



3. The undefinite article a / an is generally used with jobs (but not in plural)

    Her mother is a lawyer,
    They are carpenters
    He is a social worker



4. Generally the definite article the is not used with the genitive saxon

 la decisió del Pere F Peter's place
 l'amic de la Helen  F Helen's friend









3.- Prepositions

1. After a preposition we must always write an object personal pronoun:

   That's not for him
   I went on holiday with them
   I wouldn't share a room with her



2. To be good/bad at (doing) something

   I'm good at playing handball
   I'm bad at maths



3. Different from/same as/similar to

   Life today is different from life fifty years ago
   He's the same age as his wife
   My dreams are similar to my friend's dreams



4. In, on, at to express time

  In the morning/evening/afternoon,1986, september, winter, the 21st century
  On Monday, on 25th April, on that day

  At three o'clock, at lunch (time), at night/midday/noon


5. In, on, at for place

  In the garden, my pocket, Spain, Chelsea
  On: on the pavement, my bed, on foot

  At the bus stop, the station, airport, school, home, 10 Downing St., seaside..



6. When a verb comes after a preposition, the verb ends in -ing

   Before saying a word, think twice
   One of the advantages of being young is...
   I'm always in a bad mood after sleeping
   Before taking the medecine we must read the instructions
   He's been all morning without saying anything











4.- Verbs

1. After a preposition we must always write the gerund.

   Before saying a word, think twice
   One of the advantages of being young is...
   I'm always in a bad mood after sleeping
   Before taking the medecine we must read the instructions
   He's been all morning without saying anything


2. Verb with indirect object (IO) and direct object (DO)

Usually the IO refers to a person and comes first without preposition

  VERB + IO + DO

   He gave his son a camera for his birthday
   Can you pass me the salt, please?

We can also put the IO after the DO with a preposition, usually to or for. Generally when the DO is much shorter than the IO or when we want to give special importance to the IO

  VERB + OD + to ID

   Give it to me
   She sent some flowers to his friend



3. to allow/ let

To allow + object + to

   To allow somebody to do anything
   He doesn't allow people to smoke in his home
   Let somebody do anything
   Let me know
   Live and let live
   Let him try



4. To agree generally uses the preposition with and never the verb to be (as in catalan/spanish
   I don't agree with right wing parties



5. To depend on

   Life depends on food
   The value of Y depends on X

   It all depends on...


6. To marry: usually no preposition after

We may say a man marries a woman or is married to ; or, a woman is married to or marries a man.

   Would you marry me?
   She married him
   He was married



7.- Catalan tenses: perfet i imperfet

 Vaig menjar massa F I ate too much
  Menjava massa        F I used to eat too much



8.- Verb + object + infinitive

After some verbs we must use object + infinitive

   I want you to be quiet
   She didn't ask you to pay for the meal

Some common verbs that are used in this structure: advise, allow, ask, cause, hate, mean, prefer, wish, encourage, help, need, remind, want...

   The doctor advised him to stay in bed
  They encourage me to study hard
   We need you to go














5.- Words misused and false friends

1. Afterwards/after

afterwards F després

after         F després de

    She left after installing the phone

    Afterwards, she left



2. Among/between

Among: sorrounded by/in the middle of a group of more than two elements

Between: usually two point or limits

    I see him among the crowd

    To sail between Dover and Calais


3. Chemist's, chemist, Chemistry, chemical

     Chemist's    F shop that sells medicines
     Chemist   F    a scientist who studies chemistry
     Chemistry    F    the study of the structure of substances
     Chemical:      F     connected with Chemistry


4. Consumer society, consumer goods, consumption

     Consumer's society     F societat de consum
     Consumer goods      F     béns de consum
     Consumption                F     consum
     Consumption:  popular name for pulmonary tuberculosis



5. To die, dead, death and kill

      Flowers soon die if they are left without water
      She's dying to know where you've been
      Dead men tell no tales
      His mother death was a great blow for him

   He died of cancer
   He was killed by a cancer


6. Economic, economical and Economics

Economic means "connected with the economy of a country or area, or with the money that a society or individual has".

Economical means "spending money or using sth. in a careful or conservative way".

Economics means "the study of how a society organizes its money, trade and industry."

      The government economic priorities are not ours.
      It is usually economical to buy sth. in large quantities.     
      She would like to study Economics next course.




7. History vs. story

History: a chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation or institution) often including an explanation of their causes.

Story: an account of past events

     History is my favourite subject
     I don't like ghost stories



8. to intend
to have in mind as a purpose or goal, to design for a specified use or future
F tenir la intenció el propòsit/idea de fer alguna cosa.
You should not mistake for to try

     We intend them to do it
     I came intending to stay
     The book is intended as a guide



9. to know/meet
to know: to have knowledge of .
to meet: to come face to face with. To become acquainted with. To come together with especially at a particular time or place.

     I know her very well          F la coneixo molt bé
     I met her at the pub       F la vaig trobar o conéixer al bar
     I'll meet you at the station   F ens trobarem a l'estació



10. To listen vs. To hear:
to listen: to try to hear, to pay attention F  escoltar
to hear: perceive with the ears          F sentir (amb l'oïda)

 We listened but heard nothing
 Sorry, I couldn't hear very well



11. To look, to see

   To look: turn the eyes in some direction. F Mirar
   To see: to perceive by the eye, have o use the power of sight. F Veure



12. To pretend
To give a false appearance of being, possessing, or performing. To make believe

F Fer veure

      She does not pretend to be a psychiatrist

      He is pretending an emotion he could not really feel



13. Quiet /kwaiet/ and quite /kwait/
quiet: free from noise.
quite: completely. To a considerable extent (rather, fairly)

      Not quite finished F no completament acabat

      Quite good     F bastant bo

      A quiet town   F una ciutat tranquil.la



14. Soup/soap
soup is liquid food and soap may be defined as a substance used for washing the body

   We usually have fish soup for dinner on tuesdays
   We use soap for cleaning and washing
   A soap opera: a tv serial drama (dealing with problems in a sentimental/melodramatic way)



15. To talk/to speak
To talk: to say things.
To speak: make use of language

    I'll talk to him

    He speaks several languages


16. Usually/used to

    She usually reads novels
    I used to cry a lot when I was a child

usually: frequency adverb that goes with de Simple Present

used to: Catalan tense imperfet F plorava molt quan era petit



17. vicious: having or showing an intention or desire to hurt very badly
Generally translated into   F cruel, dolent, maliciós

    A vicious dog   F un gos dolent
    A vicious fight       F una baralla terrible












6.- Clauses


1. Clauses of purpose F oracions finals

a. Purpose expressed by an infinitive

  She went to Ireland to learn English

b. Purpose expressed by a clause:

 so that + will/would/ or can/could or may/might + infinitive

 He helped me so that I could pass the course

 She worked hard so that everything would be ready on time